Asthma is a lung condition that causes inflammation of the airways resulting in breathing difficulty. Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition and it is also known as BRONCHIAL ASTHMA.

Types of asthma: (1)

Different types of asthma are found in different people due to various factors. Some of them are as follows:

Allergies and asthma:

This type of asthma happens when a person gets exposed to any allergic condition such as hay fever in which the lining of the nose gets inflamed. Such allergic conditions increase the risk of asthma. Usually, allergens make their way through the airways and enter the body. Signs and symptoms of this asthma include:

  • Runny nose
  • Ongoing sneezing
  • Excess mucus production
  • Nasal passage get swollen
  • Scratchy throat
  • Weepy eyes
  • Cough

Exercise-induced asthma:

This type of asthma is triggered when you do exercise or any other physical exertion. If you are already suffering from asthma you will have the same symptoms after exercise. Many athletes without asthma can also have the same sign and symptoms only after exercise. The peak time of narrowing of airways in this type is five to twenty minutes and causes difficulty in breathing. Symptoms are less at the beginning but get worse after completing the exercise. Symptoms include wheezing and coughing. Your health care provider may prescribe you an inhaler that will help in reducing the symptoms during and after exercise.

Cough variant asthma:

Severe coughing is the main symptom of this type of asthma. Causes of this type can include:

  • Postnasal drip
  • Chronic rhinitis
  • Sinusitis
  • GERD

Counting with sinusitis is very common. This type of asthma is hardly diagnosed and remains untreated. Triggers for cough-variant asthma include exercise and respiratory infections. If you are suffering from a persistent cough you should immediately contact your doctor. Your doctor will suggest you test such as a lung function test. It will help your doctor to find how your lungs are working.

Occupational asthma:

This type of asthma develops at your workplace. A wide range of lists is available that include the causes of asthma but most commonly it can be any chemical that you are allergic to. Occupational asthma causes difficulty in breathing and symptoms will appear on the same day you get exposed to certain allergic substances at your workplace. People with such type of asthma face the following symptoms:

  • Runny nose
  • Congestion in nose
  • Irritation in your eye
  • Cough

You can develop asthma at any job place such as offices, hospitals, construction sites, stores, and medical centres. Places, where chances of developing asthma are at a peak, include breeding of animals, farms, hair salons, woodworks, painting, etc. Triggers of asthma include:

  • Contaminants present in the air such as smoke, any chemical fumes, dust, and vapours.
  • Respiratory Infections that includes cold, flu, and COVID-19
  • If an allergen is present in the air such as moulds, dander of animals, and pollen it can trigger asthma.

If you get exposed to allergen an asthma attack begins it will tighten and swell your airways and produces mucus. Airways got obstruct or blocked due to excessive mucus and swelling. Exhaling becomes difficult as you cannot push air out from your lungs. You must be aware of asthma triggers at your workplace and protect yourself from being exposed. You spend a huge time at your job and you may get exposed to the specific trigger many times in one day so protection is the best way to save yourself. If you get exposed to the trigger again and again it will damage your lungs permanently with severe inflammation and sensitive airways.

This type of asthma is mostly found in developed countries. Fifteen percent of asthma patients have occupational asthma.

Nighttime or nocturnal asthma:

If you have this type of asthma, chances of getting an asthma attack are usually at your sleep time. Nocturnal asthma is influenced by sleep time and common Symptoms are:

  • Wheezing
  • Coughing
  • Trouble in breathing
  • All symptoms are worst at night or sleep time.

Surveys have shown that most deaths due to asthma happen at night. Heartburn can also trigger asthma at night. Asthma and SINUSITIS are worst at night. Postnatal drip trigger coughing and symptoms of asthma get worst at night. If you find that your symptoms get worst when the evening begins, you should consult your doctor immediately and follow the instructions he suggested.

When you know the right medication that helps in reducing the symptoms and managing asthma at nighttime, it will result in quality sleep.

Thunderstorm asthma:

During spring when a heavy thunderstorm happens and blows heavy pollen counts it increases the asthma attacks. Very small-sized grains are present in the air and they can easily get inside during breathing that result in an asthma attack. It can not only happen to adults but anyone can get affected by this type of asthma. Cases of this type are rare but found in areas such as North America, the Middle East, and Australia.

You cannot control the weather but you can control the attack by taking medication prescribed by the doctor. Try to stay inside during such conditions and keep your windows closed when a thunderstorm is expected.

Treatment of asthma: (2)

PREVENTION and LONG TERM CONTROL is the best way to control asthma attacks. Recognize the triggers and try to keep yourself away from triggers. During the asthma attack, an inhaler with quick-relief medications is recommended.


Long term asthma control medications:

Types of this class include:

  • Inhaled corticosteroids:

Medications belong to this category are fluticasone propionate, budesonide, ciclesonide, and mometasone.

  • Leukotriene modifiers:

These medications are given orally and include budesonide formoterol and formoterol mometasone.

  • Combination inhalers:

The above-discussed medications are given in combination to provide relief from asthma attacks.

  • Theophylline:

This pill is given daily to keep your airways open and relax. This medication requires continuous blood monitoring.

Quick-relief medications:

This is the short-term treatment that provides quick relief from an asthma attack.

Short-acting beta-agonists:

This class includes medications such as albuterol and levalbuterol.

Anticholinergic agents:

Medications included are ipratropium and tiotropium.

Oral and intravenous corticosteroids:

Medications included are prednisone and methylprednisolone.


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